Where is Turkmenistan?

Located in Central Asia, Turkmenistan has a 4,158.00 km border with Afghanistan (804 km), Iran (1,148 km), Kazakhstan (413 km) and Uzbekistan (1,793 km). Field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005.

The capital city of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat. Ashgabat is located in the northern region of Turkmenistan on the foot of Kopet Dag mountain ranges. The city was founded in 1881 and was destroyed by earthquakes in 1948. Although the city was affected by the earthquakes, it has been rebuilt and features great marble buildings. According to the 2012 census, the city had 1,032,992 residents. The population figures make the city the most populous urban center in Turkmenistan. The marble city of Turkmen has great architectural buildings which attract many tourists. Some of the must-see places are the Ashgabat flagpole, mollanepes drama theatre, monument arch of neutrality, yimps shopping center, Turkmenistan Independence Park or the horse riding tours among others. The city of Ashgabat experiences a dry, windy and hot climate. The warmest month is July while January is the coldest month. The city also experiences strong winds. The most favorable months to visit the city is from mid-May to September. Although 70% of Turkmenistan is covered by the Karakum desert, proceeds from oil and gas, have significantly influenced the country's growth.

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Turkmenistan is an Asian country covering 488,100.00 km2 of which 3.72% is water and 469,930.00 km2 is land. This makes it the 52nd largest country in the world and slightly more than three times the size of Georgia slightly larger than California. Its geographic coordinates are 40 00 N, 60 00 E and Ashgabat is the capital city.

The name Turkmenistan means "lane of the Turkmen people".

Its ISO code is TM.


Turkmenistan has a mean elevation of 230 m above sea level.

It has a tropical, marine climate that is moderated by trade winds and relatively dry. The terrain consists of sandy deserts and dunes, with some low mountains.


Turkmenistan has a population of 5,291,317 making it the 119th largest in the world. The majority of the population lives in and around the capital of Ashgabat.

Turkmen, Russian, and Uzbek are all widely spoken. The most common ethnic group reported is Turkmen. The majority of the population is Muslim.

Turkmen is the language of communication in Turkmenistan with Russian also widely used in the public sector. Turkmen became the official language in 1992 with English as the second official language in 1993. Only a small percentage of the population speaks English. The current Turkmen alphabet used in Turkmenistan was introduced in 1991 and it contains 32 letters based in Latin script. The language has 23 consonants and nine vowels. The Turkmen alphabet has been based on the Latin, Arabic and Cyrillic scripts over the years. The majority of the population in Turkmenistan speaks Turkmen with the other two widely spoken languages are Russian and Uzbek. There are about 20 other minority languages spoken in the country.

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The dialing code for the country is 993.


Turkmenistan is an independent country. It gained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Its constitution was last ratified in 1992.

The official name of the government of Turkmenistan is the Republic of Turkmenistan. The head of state and government is the president who is elected to office for five years. The office of the president was created in 1992 following the endorsement of the new constitution. The state is highly authoritarian and a unitary presidential republic. The assembly, otherwise known as the Mejlis is the parliament in Turkmenistan. It comprises of 125 members voted directly by single-member constituencies for five years. Parliamentary sessions are held at Rukhiyet Palace in Ashgabat, the capital city of the country. The palace was constructed by a French company known as Bouygues. The parliament type in the country is unicameral. Citizens of 18 years and above are eligible to vote. Those vying for elected positions should be 25 years and above. During elections, a candidate is declared elected if they have attained 50% of the votes cast in every constituency. By-elections are held within three months to fill vacant seats provided the vacancy has occurred has not occurred in less than a year to the end of the Assembly’s term. The country has a multi-party system with the two dominant parties being the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan and Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs.

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Factoring in Purchasing Power Parity, Turkmenistan's GDP is $94,720,000,000.00 (USD) with $17,300.00 (USD) per capita. This makes it the 83rd largest economy and its citizens the 91st richest in the world. The currency of Turkmenistan is the Manat (TMT).

Its major export partners are China and Turkey. Its main exports are gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, textiles, and cotton fiber. Its major import partners are Turkey, Russia, and China. Its major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, and foodstuffs.


The flag of Turkmenistan includes several elements including a crescent, five stars and a vertical stripe on the hoist side. The stripe on the hoist side has guls (carpet designs) which represent the houses in Turkmenstan. On the green background, the five stars stand for the five regions of Mary, Dashoguz, Balkan Labap, and Ahal. The green color stands for the Muslim religion while the olive leaves on the flag are a symbol for the country’s neutrality status. Before the current flag, Turkmen used a different flag before achieving independence from the Soviet Union. The flag was comprised of a red background with two blue stripes in the middle. On the top left corner were a hammer, sickle, and a star. After independence, the country got a new flag which has been used ever since its adoption on February 19, 1992. The only difference was on the flag’s few modification done over the years. Some of the modifications are the addition of the olive leaves, changing the position of the stars on the flag and the most recent one being the flags ratio being increased from 1:2 to the current 2:3 ratio.

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This page was last modified on January 17th, 2018