Where is Sudan?

Located in Northeastern Africa, Sudan has a 6,819.00 km border with Central African Republic (174 km), Chad (1,403 km), Egypt (1,276 km), Eritrea (682 km), Ethiopia (744 km), Libya (382 km) and South Sudan (2,158 km). It has a 853.00 km coastline. The effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting have penetrated all of its neighboring states.

The capital of Sudan is Khartoum, which is located in the south central region of the country. The Blue Nile and White Nile rivers run through this city, dividing it into 3 sections. These two rivers join to form the Nile river, which continues to Egypt. Khartoum was first established as a capital city in 1898, when Sudan was considered a territory of Egypt and the UK. Upon its independence in 1956, it was officially recognized as the capital of Sudan. As of 2008, the population of Khartoum was around 3,639,598, with an entire metropolitan population size of more than 5.27 million individuals. Due to violence and lack of rainfall across the country, many displaced persons have been coming to this city in the last few years. Some estimates suggest that as many as 2 million more people live here. Khartoum is located within a hot arid climatic zone.

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Sudan is an African country covering 1,861,484.00 km2. This makes it the 15th largest country in the world and slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US. Its geographic coordinates are 15 00 N, 30 00 E and Khartoum is the capital city.

The name Sudan comes from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan", meaning "Land of the Black people".

Its ISO code is SD.


Sudan has a mean elevation of 568 m above sea level.

It has a tropical climate moderated by trade winds. Its terrain is generally flat, with desert in the north.


Sudan has a population of 36,729,501 making it the 37th largest in the world. The majority of the country is sparsely populated.

Arabic and English are both official languages. The majority ethnic group is Sudanese Arab. The majority of the population is Sunni Muslim.

The Constitution of Sudan identifies 2 official languages: English and Arabic. English is considered an Indo-European language, while Arabic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family. English is considered the working language of government and is used in public announcements and public school texts. In some areas of the country, it serves as the language of business as well. The most widely spoken language here, however, is Sudanese Arabic, a dialect of Arabic. Speakers of Arabic and speakers of Sudanese Arabic may not understand one another. Linguists have identified at least 114 native languages in Sudan, each of which is recognized as a national language. This recognition means that local governments may choose to conduct responsibilities in one of these languages in addition to English.

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The dialing code for the country is 249.


Sudan is an independent country. It gained independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1956. Its constitution was last ratified in 2005.

The government of Sudan is carried out as a representative democratic republic, which means the population elects individuals to represent their interests in government. The President of Sudan acts as the Head of State and the Head of Government, while legislative duties are administered by the National Legislature. This bicameral body is made up of the Council of States (50 seats) and the National Assembly (426 seats). The judicial branch acts independently of the executive and legislative branches. The election process in Sudan is different for each of the branches of government. Presidential elections, for example, take place in a two-round system, which means that a candidate must win the majority of votes in the first round to avoid a second round of voting. Legislative elections, however, take place differently. Half of the National Assembly members are elected based on majority vote. The number of representatives from each constituency depends on its population. Another 128 positions are set aside specifically for women, who are chosen by their political party in a closed list system. These women represent only one constituency, the nation as a whole.

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Factoring in Purchasing Power Parity, Sudan's GDP is $176,000,000,000.00 (USD) with $4,500.00 (USD) per capita. This makes it the 66th largest economy and its citizens the 166th richest in the world. The currency of Sudan is the Pound (SDG).

Its major export partners are the United Arab Emirates, Macau, and Saudi Arabia. Its main exports are gold, oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, and livestock. Its major import partners are Macau, the United Arab Emirates, and India. Its major imports include foodstuffs, manufactured goods, and medicines.


The current flag of Sudan was officially established as the national flag on May 20, 1970. It has a tricolor design with equally measured horizontal stripes. From top to bottom, these colors are red, white, and black. A green triangle is located along its left hand side. The colors of the flag of Sudan are linked to the Pan-Arab movement, a nationalistic ideology designed to bring Arab-identifying countries together. Each color also has an independent meaning in regards to the national identity of Sudan. This country has flown a number of flags prior to its current design. Its first independent flag was a tricolor with equally measured horizontal stripes: blue, yellow, and green (from top to bottom).

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This page was last modified on January 17th, 2018

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