Where is Sao Tome and Principe?

Located in Central Africa, Sao Tome and Principe is an island nation. It has a 209.00 km coastline.

The capital city of Sao Tome and Principe is Sao Tome, the largest island in the country, and is located off the western coast of the country of Gabon. The climate of Sao Tome is considered a tropical wet and dry environment with a long wet season and short dry season. The wet season, from October-May, sees 95% of the yearly rainfall ( 846 millimetres or 33.31 inches) and the dry season (June-September) receives just 37 millimetres (1.45 inches) of precipitation in total. Temperatures remain constant throughout the year with the average high reaching 28.9 degrees Celsius (84 degrees Fahrenheit) and the average low hovering around 21.8 degrees Celsius (71.2 degrees Fahrenheit). The record high in Sao Tome is 33.9 degrees Celsius (93 degrees Fahrenheit). The population of the city was last estimated in 2015 at 71,868 citizens who live on the 17 square kilometres (7 square miles) island. Population density is 4,200 people per square kilometre (11,000 per square mile) and the population grew significantly from 2003-2015.

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Sao Tome and Principe is an African country covering 964.00 km2. This makes it the 25th smallest country in the world and about 3 times smaller than Rhode Island. Its geographic coordinates are 1 00 N, 7 00 E and Sao Tome is the capital city.

Sao Tome and Principe was named by the Portuguese after Saint Thomas.

Its ISO code is ST.

Geography

Sao Tome and Principe has a mean elevation of 0 m above sea level.

It has a dry, desert climate with great temperature extremes. Its terrain is mostly volcanic and mountainous.

Population

Sao Tome and Principe has a population of 197,541 making it the 184th largest in the world.

The majority of the population speaks Portuguese. The major ethnic groups reported as mestico, angolares, and forros. The majority of the population is Catholic or non-religious.

The official and national language of Sao Tome and Principe is Portuguese. The country was an overseas colony of the Portuguese Empire from 1470-1975 and thus, the language was used by most, if not all residents during this time. After independence, the language has remained the main method of communication in the country due to the previous 300 years of ingrained use. Other African countries that speak Portuguese include Angola, Cape Verde, Equatorial-Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and Mozambique. Angolar Creole, Cape Verdean Creole, English, Forro, French, and Principense are minority languages taught in schools across the country and many citizens speak multiple languages. The culture and religion of Sao Tome and Principe is heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial period as well as the African location of the nation. Approximately 98% of residents speak Portuguese and many different ethnic groups share the language as their native tongue. This number includes the Portuguese-Creole variants that have naturally evolved over time. In 1992, the five African countries that speak Portuguese formed the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language (PALOP) organization that seeks to promote the language, culture and cooperation of Portugal and Brazil in Africa. The main religion of the islands is the Roman Catholic Church which has close ties to the church in Portugal.

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The dialing code for the country is 239.

Government

Sao Tome and Principe is an independent country. It gained independence from Portugal in 1975. Its constitution was last ratified in 1975.

The political system of Sao Tome and Principe is considered a semi-presidential democratic republic that has functioned within a multi-party environment since 1990. The President of Sao Tome and Principe is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is held by the President and the national government and legislative power is held by the government and national parliament. The Constitution of Sao Tome and Principe (1990) is the founding document for the political system of the country. Elections in Sao Tome and Principe for the Presidency take place every five years.

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Economy

Factoring in Purchasing Power Parity, Sao Tome and Principe's GDP is $694,000,000.00 (USD) with $3,300.00 (USD) per capita. This makes it the 207th largest economy and its citizens the 182nd richest in the world. The currency of Sao Tome and Principe is the Dobra (STD).

Its major export partners are the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain. Its main exports are cocoa, copra, coffee, and palm oil. Its major import partners are Portugal, China, and Gabon. Its major imports include machinery and electrical equipment, food products, and petroleum products.

Flag

The flag of Sao Tome and Principe consists of a red triangle on the left-hand side intersecting three horizontal bands of green, yellow, and green (top to bottom). The yellow band contains two five-pointed stars that are black in color. These colors, when combined, are widely known as Pan-African. The flag was officially adopted on 5 November 1975 after independence from Portugal was granted. The country had previously been a colony of the Portuguese Empire from 1470-1975. In 1960, the Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Príncipe were established and their flag is almost identical to the current national flag. This group of individuals fought for independence against the ruling Portuguese empire and would eventually rule the country for 15 years. It is unknown who the original designer, or designers, of the flag were. This flag carries cultural and political meanings, as well as reflecting the natural environment of the country. The yellow band is a symbol of the sun as well as cocoa (a key crop) while the green is representative of the agriculture and vegetation of Sao Tome and Principe. The red triangle, similar to many other countries in the region, is symbolic of the struggle for independence and the two black stars illustrate the two islands of the country.

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This page was last modified on February 6th, 2018