The capital of Mexico is Mexico City (Ciudad de México), and it is located in the Valley of Mexico. It is the oldest capital in the Americas, and was first built by the Aztecs in 1325, known at the time as Tenochtitlan. It had to be rebuilt after the Aztec population was devastated during the Siege of Tenochtitlan in 1521 by the Spanish during their quest to conquer Mexico. It was officially designated as Mexico City by the year 1585. After that, it became the Federal District (Distrito Federal) in 1824 when it was chosen to be the location of the Federal Government. The name Federal District was dropped on January 29, 2016, in favor of Mexico City.

As of 2016, the city had an estimated population of over 8.9 million people. The metropolitan area had a much higher population of over 21.2 million. In fact, about 75% of the state of Mexico's population resided here, making it the most populous area in the country. Over the past century, the city's rapid growth led to the emergence of shanty towns on its outskirts as it became increasingly unable to keep up with the housing and public services needs of its population. Fortunately, the rate of urban migration has now slowed down. The city also has a considerable number of expatriates and immigrants. It has the most substantial number of Americans living outside of their own country. Mexico City also has immigrants from Canada, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Europe and more recently from Asia.

Mexico City offers many attractions to tourists, and for history enthusiasts, there are several UNESCO listed world heritage sites and 160 museums. For example, there is the Ancient city of Teotihuacan and its pyramids which were built between the 1st and 7th Century A.D., and the Historic Centre of Mexico City (Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México) which has buildings constructed in the 16th century. Another great attraction is the National Museum of Anthropology, which is the most visited museum in Mexico. It focuses on exhibits from Native Americans. Tourists could also visit the Chapultepec Castle which is an 18th Century palace and used to be the President's residence until 1939.

The city experiences an oceanic subtropical highland climate due to its elevated tropical location. Its winters are relatively mild, and it enjoys pleasant weather throughout the year. Its dry season extends from October to May with the rainy season starting from June to September. The average annual temperature is 63.0°F with May and January being the warmest and coldest months, experiencing average temperatures of 67.0°F and 57.0°F. On average, July has the highest precipitation and February has the lowest with 5.1 inches and 0.2 inches respectively.

This page was last modified on May 1st, 2018

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