Where is Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Located in Southeastern Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a 1,543.00 km border with Croatia (956 km), Montenegro (242 km) and Serbia (345 km). It has a 20.00 km coastline. Sections along the Drina River remain in dispute between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Sarajevo is the capital, largest and most populous city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was founded in the mid-15th century and was officially made the capital of Bosnia after independence in 1992. The urban population is about 280,000 while the metro population is about 560,000. The city has been nicknamed the Jerusalem of Europe due to its cultural and religious diversity. The city experiences a humid continental climate with influence from the oceanic zones.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina is a European country covering 51,197.00 km2 of which 0.02% is water and 51,187.00 km2 is land. This makes it the 70th smallest country in the world and slightly smaller than West Virginia. Its geographic coordinates are 44 00 N, 18 00 E and Sarajevo is the capital city.

Bosnia is named for the Bosna River, while Herzegovina gets its name from the German word "herzog", meaning duke.

Its ISO code is BA.


Bosnia and Herzegovina has a mean elevation of 500 m above sea level.

It experiences hot summers and cold winters, with extreme temperatures in areas of high elevation and mild, rainy winters near the coastline. Its terrtain consists of mountains and valleys.


Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of 3,861,912 making it the 129th largest in the world. The most densely populated areas are in the northern and central areas of the country.

Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian are all official languages. The majority ethnic groups reported are Bosniak, Serb and Croat. The population is mostly made up of Muslims, Orthodox Christians, and Roman Catholics.

The Bosnian constitution does not state the national languages of Bosnia, but a majority of residents speak Bosnian, Croatian, or Serbian. A majority of Bosniaks (52.86%) consider Bosnian to be their mother tongue. 30.76% of the population speak Serbian, while 14.6% use Croatian. Several other minority languages are used in the country including Czech, Italian: German, Polish, Turkish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Slovene.

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The dialing code for the country is 387.


Bosnia and Herzegovina is an independent country. It became independent with the dissoluton of Yugoslavia in 1992. Its constitution was last ratified in 1995.

Bosnia is a representative parliamentary democracy. The system of government in the country is unique and one of the most complicated in the world. There are three presidents in the country, who each must represent the Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian ethnic groups. They are elected through popular vote by their groups. The presidents are headed by a chairman with the role circulating every eight months. The Presidency Building in Sarajevo acts as the official residence and workplace of the presidents. The BiH parliament consists of the House of Representatives (42 members) and the House of Peoples (15 members).

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Factoring in Purchasing Power Parity, Bosnia and Herzegovina's GDP is $42,530,000,000.00 (USD) with $11,000.00 (USD) per capita. This makes it the 112th largest economy and its citizens the 132nd richest in the world. The currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the Marka (BAM).

Its major export partners are Slovenia, Italy, and Germany. Its main exports are metals, clothing, and wood products. Its major import partners are Croatia, Germany, and Slovenia. Its major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, and fuels.


The official flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of a yellow triangle against a deep blue background, with seven stars lining the side of the triangle. Seven five-pointed white stars and two half stars stretch along the hypotenuse of the triangle. It was adopted as the national flag on February 4, 1998. The stars represent Europe with the two half stars symbolizing continuity and infinity. The blue color represents Europe while the yellow and white represent peace.

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This page was last modified on January 17th, 2018

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